The Digitization of Ukiyo-e at the Chiossone Museum and Some Remarkable Prints in Light of a New Stage in Ukiyo-e Studies
The Chiossone Museum and the Art Research Centre are running a digital archiving project for the Chiossone collection of Japanese art. We started from the paper materials in the collection, and as far as ukiyo-e are concerned, we have finished digitising 80 percent of the collection by last March and hope to complete the work in September 2010. While conducting the digitisation, we are also preparing the metadata for the image database in Japanese. Although experiencing some difficulties in translating Japanese to Italian, we hope to find the best ways to collaborate internationally and to prepare metadata in foreign languages other than Japanese and English in the near future. This paper will discuss the ukiyo-e collection from a historical perspective as well as introduce remarkable materials which no major catalogues have featured yet. Not completely new findings, these ukiyo-e prints, however, shall be important in the next stage of research after the image database grows.
The Kreitmann Collection: Kreitmann as a Military Instructor
Louis Kreitmann stayed in Japan from 1876 to 1878 as military instructor. I will present some military aspects of the Kreitmann Collection at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Japonaises, Collège de France, Paris (notes for lessons, text books made from translations of lessons, military maps etc.) with quotations from his letters and diary to be published. I will also talk about the on-going project of a digital archive at the Collège de France, which will include parts of the Kreitmann Collection.
The Research Project about Japanese Narrative and Illuminated Manuscripts in the Public Collections of France: One Year Result, on the Shuhanron emaki (BnF)
The Bibliothèque nationale de France, the Japanese Studies Center (Inalco) and the Research Center on East Asian Civilization jointly organized in 2010-2011 a workshop about the Illustrated Scroll of the Sake and the Rice Debate (Shuhanron emaki). This workshop was held within the framework of a research program entitled “Japanese manuscripts and narrative paintings of the Edo Period owned by the Manuscripts Department or public collections in France”. This program is part of a three-year research program at the BnF 2010-2012.
We aim to present the results of this first year of collective research, centred on the Shuhanron emaki and the question of the representation of the food in the manuscript.
The original manuscript of the Shuhanron emaki dates back to the 16th C., and the Manuscripts Department own a beautiful copy (18th-19th C.). This scroll illustrates, in a sequence of four paintings representing banquets and kitchen scenes, a debate about different types of food, behind which a religious dispute is hidden. The specialists of food imagery proposed to examine this year the multiple meanings of those representations, including anthropological, literary, pictorial and symbolic.
Needs and Prospects in Europe for e-Resources on Asia
Electronic resources are now part of a librarian's daily activities and are increasingly expected if not demanded by library users. How does a newly appointed librarian handle databases and other e-resources? How do we keep up-to-date with these products? How do we foresee their influence and impact in the years to come? The presentation will introduce the results of a survey sent out in June to the European library and scholarly communities on this specific topic and will be followed by a discussion on the feasibility of, need for and possible benefits of additional European cooperation.
Seiyō kibun: how his Meeting with Sidotti boosted Arai Hakuseki's Knowledge about the West
この発表に於いては、ジョバンニ・バッティスタ・シドッティとの出会いが原 動力になり、急な発展を見せた新井白石の世界地理学の研究を検証しながら、 異質な思想形成をバックボーンに持っている二人の葛藤や交流について述べて 行く。シドッティが懸命に日本に齎そうとしたキリスト教に対して、白石が如 何なる態度を示したかについて考察した後、白石を「江戸蘭学の先駆け」とし て定義していく。
後半に於いて、新井白石の世界地理学研究の裏にある動機や彼が西洋文化と 接し、導き出した答えは如何なるものであったか、それが江戸後期や幕末の思 想界に如何なる影響を与えたかについて述べながら発表を終える予定である。
Research Libraries in the Social Sciences and Related Research Activities in France
フランス国立社会科学高等研究院 EHESS は、アナール学派の歴史家、フェル ナン・ブローデル、リュシアン・フェーヴルらによって 1947 年に高等研究実 習院内に設立された「経済・社会科学部門」の独立によって創立。歴代教授に は、ブルデュー、デリダ、レヴィ・ストロースといった著名な学者が数多くい る。
EHESS の 47 の研究所は対象地域と分野によって分類され、日本研究所は、現 代日本社会の諸問題に取り組む研究機関として 1973 年に設立。研究分野は主 に、歴史、経済、民俗、宗教、都市景観である。当研究所は独自の図書館を運 営しており、設立以前から日本研究者のグループによって蓄積された図書を基 盤に、社会科学分野専門に資料の収集を行ってきた。SUDOC 及び BULAC に参 加しており、カタログはインターネットで検索できる。
EHESS は近い将来、アングロ・サクソン圏のキャンパスをモデルにした「コン ドルセ計画」の中心となるなど、大きな転換期を迎えている。その先駆けとし て 2009 年、社会科学分野の日仏間の研究促進を目的とする「パリ日仏財団」 が EHESS 内に設立された。財団活動についても報告する。
Production and Circulation of Vernacular Italian Texts Related to the Jesuit Mission in Japan in the XVI Century
The reports and histories compiled by the members of the Society of Jesus during the latter half of the XVI Century, are a rich, if not always organic, source of information about the Japanese archipelago in the Sengoku and Azuchi-Momoyama periods. Such reports played a key role in defining “Japan”, for the first time, as a geographical and political reality, in the imaginary of at least a part of the European public.
Reports, regularly sent by missionaries stationed in Japan to their superiors in Europe, were in fact not only circulated in manuscript form to the majority of the Jesuit houses, but were also, in a selected number of cases, published and commercially distributed throughout Europe. Although part of these reports were printed in the original language of the manuscripts (mostly Spanish or Portuguese), reports translated and issued in the Italian vernacular were, apparently, the most widespread, since most translations later published throughout Europe were based on them.
My paper will focus on such Italian vernacular reports. I will take Venice, the major printing center in Italy in the XVI century, as a case study, and try and analyse both the contents of the published reports and the context in which they were issued. I will illustrate what kind of materials were published and why – in relation to the policies of the Catholic Revival. I will also make some hypothesis on the kind of readers who would approach these texts and what image of Japan they could derive from them.
The Digitization of the Berlin State Library's Collection of Japanese Rare Books
The Berlin State Library‟s collection of Japanese Rare Books comprises about 500 titles. It is a small collection, but holds specimens that cover the different phases of the long history of Japanese book production. The earliest period is represented by a small number of Nara-ban, Kōya-ban and Kokatsuji-ban. Thanks to a donation in 1980 the Berlin State Library also holds a copy of a Hyakumantō darani, which is regarded as one of the oldest prints in the world. The majority of the collection consists of manuscripts and prints from the Edo period. Among the highlights are several beautifully hand-painted scrolls such as the Gangōji engi, the Hōrai monogatari or the story of Ochikubo. But also illustrated books printed from wood-blocks such as the Miyako meisho zue or the Heike monogatari are valuable items of the collection. Especially prominent in the collection, are books on medicine and on the game of go, as both derive from the acquisition of two private collections. Thanks to funding of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) a digitization project is now under way to present the entire rare book collection of the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library on the internet. An overview of the current state of the project including its problems and its delights will be given.
ベルリン国立図書館の日本書貴重本コレクションは、およそ 500 点のタイトル からなる。小規模ではあるが、日本の長きにわたる書史の多様な展開を色濃く 反映したコレクションとなっている。書史初期の作品としては、奈良版、高野 版及び古活字版を尐数所蔵している。また 1980 年の寄贈により、ベルリン国 立図書館は、世界最古の印刷物のひとつに数えられる百万塔陀羅尼の1本を所 蔵することとなった。コレクションの大部分は、江戸時代に作られた写本と刊 本からなる。そのハイライトとしては、華麗な筆致の絵巻物(『元興寺縁 起』、『蓬莱物語』や『落ちぼ』ほか)が挙げられる。また『平家物語』およ び『都名所図会』を含む、絵入り木版本も貴重なコレクションの一部である。 2 つの個人コレクションを加えたため、本コレクションの中でも、医学と囲碁 に関する図書がとりわけ目を引く。ドイツ学術振興協会(Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)の援助を得て、ベルリン国立図書館東アジア部の貴重 本コレクション全体をデジタル化し、インターネットで提供するプロジェクト が現在進行中である。そのプロジェクトの現況、その難点および喜びを紹介す る。
Open Access Databases at the National Institute of Japanese Literature
FURUSE Osamu, WADA Yoichi, KOJIMA Ayumi
国文学研究資料館は様々な種類のデータベースをインターネット上で公開して いる。そのデータベースから書誌情報、全文テキスト、画像などが検索・閲覧 できる web サイトについて概要および利用状況について紹介する。また、館蔵 和古書掲載及びマイクロフィルム保存の画像をデジタル化し 国文学論文目録 と同様に利用件数が高い古典籍に関するデータベースから2009年よりイン ターネットでの公開を開始した画像についても紹介する。現在、館蔵和古書画 像約1,500件、収集マイクロデジタル画像約3,000件を公開してお り、今後も、画像の順次公開を進めていく予定である。
The National Institute of Japanese Literature (NIJL) has released various kinds of database available on the Internet. We will give an overview of the websites of the NIJL‟s database, where bibliographical information, full texts, and images about Japanese literature can be retrieved and browsed. Then we will make a brief presentation of the statistical analysis of the website visits and usage of the NIJL‟s database. The websites about "Early Japanese Books" are frequently utilized as well as that of "Research Theses in Japanese Literature". We will also present the computerized images from the early Japanese books and microfilms owned by NIJL, which have been released since 2009. We are increasing the number of images available on the Internet, which at present add up to 1,500 images from books and 3,000 from microfilms.
Getting JACAR Closer to European Japan Specialists
The Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR) has been, over the course of nine years, steadfastly expanding its free online database of presently more than twenty million scanned historical documents. In addition, the JACAR website offers special exhibitions on topics such as Japanese-US negotiations prior to the Pacific War‟s outbreak, the Iwakura mission to Europe and the US, the Russo-Japanese war, as well as Chiune Sugihara‟s endeavors in war-time Lithuania. These special exhibitions and other explorations of major historical topics are intended to make JACAR documents more accessible to non-specialists.
JACAR‟s achievements are indebted to the leadership of founding director-general Professor Yoneo Ishii, who regretfully passed away last March. Professor Yoneo Ishii‟s successor, Kenichiro Hirano, is a historian specializing in modern East Asian international relations. Kenichiro Hirano strongly shares his predecessor‟s belief that perceptions of history ought to be based upon fact; and, since determining historical fact is not easy, archived documents are indispensable to the rigorous search of scholars. It is hoped that European specialists of modern Japanese history will find JACAR to be a useful archival resource in locating Japanese documents relevant to their research undertakings. For such purposes, Kenichiro Hirano would be delighted to take advantage of EAJRS‟ expertise and intends to open up the dialogue on further enhancing JACAR‟s reference services.
Photography and the Book: Henry Norman's Glass Negatives from the Royal Commonwealth Society Collections at Cambridge University
Edoardo Chiossone contributed toward the development of printing in modern Japan and has also left drawings and etchings of famous Japanese people in Meiji period. Photography and printing shared similar processes or were related to each other during their infancy. For example, photography managed to produce multiple copies like printing after the introduction of wet plates (glass negatives) in the 1850s. Collotype printing used photography directly to produce images in publications from the 1870s onwards, although the number of copies was limited (up to several hundred?). Chiossone lived in Japan from 1875 to 1898, but in Chiossone‟s case, photography was not used directly for the printing of images, but through engravings.
Probably, photographs were gradually being used directly for the printing of journals, newspapers and books (a relatively large number of publications) from the 1890s onwards through photomechanical processes, such as half-tone printing.
Henry Norman (1858-1939), a journalist and politician, travelled around the world in the period 1887-1891 for almost four years. He arrived in Japan in August 1888 and he finally left Japan in April 1890, although he also visited other Asian countries at the same time. He took his own photographs using dry plates. He published Real Japan and People and Politics of the Far East in 1892 and 1895 respectively, and the photographs he took in Japan and the Far East were used for his books through photomechanical processes.
Henry Norman‟s widow (Fay Norman) donated his items such as pamphlets and 30 dry plate glass negatives on Japan and the Far East to the Royal Commonwealth Society (the Royal Empire Society) before World War II. In 1993, the library of the Royal Commonwealth Society was transferred to Cambridge University Library. Among the 30 glass negatives, 12 are photographs of Japan and Japanese.
I would like to explore the early relation between photography and books showing the Henry Norman glass negatives from the Royal Commonwealth Society Collections at Cambridge University Library.
Archival Research on Agricultural Chemistry at the End of the 19th century in England and Japan: Based on Findings at the Royal Agricultural College
The first foreign teachers at the National Agricultural College in Komaba, which eventually became the Department of Agriculture of Tokyo University, were five British teachers. Among them, Edward Kinch, who taught chemistry, contributed to the development of agricultural chemistry in Japan. After five years teaching in Japan, he returned home as he was appointed a professor of chemistry at the Royal Agricultural College (R.A.C.). While Kinch was a professor at the R.A.C. from May 1881 until 1915, a total of 32 Japanese people, including his former students, visited him. Yasutaka Matsudaira, who was from the nobility, entered R.A.C. in May 1889. After he returned to Japan, he founded “The Matsudaira Experimental Station” in Fukui Prefecture in May 1893. He wrote a paper entitled “The Culture of Kaki,” which he exhibited at the British-Japan Exposition in London in 1910. In this presentation I would like to introduce the methods of my investigation and the results of my archival research pertaining to Kinch, Yasutaka Matsudaira, and agricultural chemistry in England, which I have conducted mainly at R.A.C. starting in the spring of 2008.
The Asahi Shinbun Online Newspaper Database: An Informational Repository of 130 years of History of Modern Japan
Kikuzo II Visual (http://database.asahi.com/library2e/), an online commercial database of the Asahi Shinbun, was significantly refurbished in April 2010. By adding image data of the pages printed during the Meiji, the Taisho and the early Showa periods, it became one of the largest newspaper databases of Japan, and presently contains more than 12 million items of articles and advertisements of the paper since its first issue in 1879. Not only the Tokyo edition but also the Osaka edition of the paper is covered. Regarding the post-1985 articles, full-text searching is available. It also contains articles of two leading weekly magazines: Aera and Shukan Asahi. Furthermore, the Historical Photo Archive, a database of approximately 10 thousand photographic records mostly taken in Asia during the World War II period, is available as well.
The “History keyword” system is a distinctive feature of Kikuzo II Visual, which is designed to efficiently search for the articles of the Meiji, the Taisho and the Showa periods. History keywords consist of selected major events of those days and names of historical figures as opposed to regular keywords given in the articles. By searching the database by history keywords, all relevant articles, even those which do not contain the expected keywords, can be searched comprehensively. In addition, a variety of history keyword lists (e.g. a chronological table and one organized by field of activity) further helps one‟s search. A click on a keyword in the lists is enough to retrieve all relevant information at once.
朝日新聞の「聞蔵IIビジュアル」(http://database.asahi.com/library2e/)は、過去の 出来事を手軽に調べることができるオンライン記事データベースです。日本国 内外の多くの大学や図書館などでご利用いただいています。2010年4月に 明治、大正、昭和初期の紙面イメージを追加し、1879年(明治12年)の 創刊号から今日までの130年分の紙面から約1200万件の記事・広告が検 索できる日本国内最大級の新聞記事データベースになりました。キーワード検 索の対象記事の大半は東京本社で発行された紙面ですが、大阪本社発行の紙面 も収録されており、発行日による検索で内容が異なる2つの紙面を読み比べる こともできます。1985年以降の記事は全文検索方式で、テキスト本文を表 示して読むことができます。雑誌「AERA」「週刊朝日」の記事も収録され ています。また、第二次世界大戦中を中心にアジア各地で特派員やカメラマン が撮影した写真7万枚から歴史研究者が選んだ資料価値の高い1万枚をデータ ベース化した「歴史写真アーカイブ」も収録しています。 明治、大正、昭和期の便利な検索ツールとして、「歴史キーワード」があり ます。例えば「コレラ流行」「タイタニック号沈没」「明治天皇」といった当 時大きく取り上げられた出来事や歴史的人物名などは、原文に言葉がなくとも 「歴史キーワード」化して関連する記事に付与しています。「歴史キーワー ド」は、収録期間中の「年表」に記載し、さらに、50音順、分野別、人名別 に抽出してあります。これらの一覧表に掲げた言葉をクリックすることで、事 象ごとにまとめて検索できます。聞蔵IIは日本の近現代史資料の宝庫です。過 去の歴史検証だけでなく現代を考える上でも有益な資料として役立つことを期 待しています。
A Study on the Books and Documents in the Nishogakusha University Collection
The foundation of Nishogakusha University goes back to the school of Chinese studies established in 1877 by the Sinologist Mishima Chushu (1830-1919). The school was turned into a private college in 1928 with the purpose of training secondary school teachers majoring in Chinese and Japanese literature. It finally became a university in 1949. From 2004 to 2009, Nishogakusha University received financial funds from the Ministry of Education to promote the "Research on Kanbun Studies" project. Besides the already known collection of the university library, which includes private collections of persons related to the university, new acquisitions have been made recently and the creation of a library catalogue is under way. Moreover, a monthly research group is currently sorting out the Library collection. My research focuses on the achievements of Japanese and Chinese studies and the role they played in Japan during the modern period.
War Memory and Records Program: Building an Archival Network on Wartime Japanese Colonies and Occupied Areas and the Atomic Bomb
Preserving the memory of the 20th century for the future is one of the most important archival tasks of the world. Especially Japan plays an important role in these activities as the sole nation that challenged colonial and military supremacy over East and Southeast Asia and suffered military attacks of nuclear weapons.
Japan is able to contribute to the establishment of world peace through the “archives of modern history,” which will enhance the research sources of the world. This research project aims to build an “archives of modern history” which preserves “memory" and records on “two world wars”, “colonial rule” and “nuclear military power” and to carry out a joint archival program with multi-disciplinary scholars. The project is built on three divisional programs as follows.
(1) The “War Memory and Records” project team is to clarify the process of the survival of records on Japanese occupied Southeast Asia.
(2) The “Memory and Records of Colonial rule” project team focuses on the archival research of the records on Japanese colonial rule in East Asia such as China, Korea and Taiwan. (3) The “Memory and Records in the Nuclear Era” project team is to build a network of
materials related to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Atomic bombs, especially focusing on the
materials held in the United States. This talk will focus on two programs: “War Memory and Records” and “Memory and Records in the Nuclear Era”. We enhance the accessibility to the Japanese captured sources and related materials in Japan, Southeast Asia and Europe, and also create digital form images of Atomic Bomb survivors‟ medical records (ABCC Records) to open accessibility. The project also intends to propose a practical model of “the archives of modern history” in Japan.
Japanese Textile Works in the late 19th and early 20th： It's current situation and research
日本近代の美術染織工芸作品(刺繍・織・友禅作品)は、国内の美術館・博物 館で収蔵が確認されている例が極めて尐なく、それらに関する資料には未公開 のものも多い。また、当時の美術染織作品は、西欧の嗜好の影響を多分に受け ており、海外に収蔵されている作品も尐なくないことから、国内資料だけでは 近代染織の全体像を浮かび上がらせるのは困難である。当発表では、明治期に 開催された万国博覧会出品刺繍作品を中心に、近代美術染織研究に不可欠な資 料の現状について概観した上で、在外資料調査の必要性に関して例を挙げつつ 報告する。
Images of the Japanese in Spanish Catholic Mission Journals (1914-1923): "Interpersonally Oriented Religiosity"
In this paper, I will assess the Spanish Catholic Mission Journals from the period 1914-1923 as a resource I consulted in an effort to construct a clear image of the Japanese and especially of the way they face the spiritual question, as the missionaries saw it.
A large portion of these resources was collected in the following libraries: the Library of the Seminary in Vitoria (Álava), the Library of the Mercedarian Missionaries of Bérriz (Vizcaya), and the Library of the Dominicans, The Order of Preachers, in the Monasterio de Santa Catalina de Siena (Madrid).
A preliminary study, in which we sorted a total of 212 articles into 5 styles, showed that the writers, missionaries, had a penchant for long articles running to of 3 ~ 5 pages, in which they liked to describe mostly the conditions at their mission post or incidents encountered in the course of mission activities. These categories of articles I have labeled “Descriptions” (40, 5% of the total = 86 articles)” and “Epistles” (22, 1%= 47 articles).” Their central topic is usually the religiosity of the Japanese.
The following characteristic elements are taken into account when interpreting the Japanese religiosity as teh missionaries depict is, which I characterize as “interpersonally oriented”: 1) the historical context of the development of Spanish mission activities and mission journals during the decade under review; 2) the influence these mission journals as cultural vehicles of images of Japan, have had upon the recipient Spanish society; 3) these journals contained writings compiled by persons who were experts of Japan and its people, who wrote directly about their experiences with an eye to support and strengthen the Church; 4) they constitute an effort that is sustained by the spiritual and financial collaboration of the faithful, who are encouraged to do so by reading these journals.
'Genji-e' in the Edo era: Nisemurasaki inaka-genji and Actors' Pictures in Edo murasaki gojūyon jō
「源氏絵」とは、主に紫式部の『源氏物語』をもとに描かれた作品のことで ある。現在、国宝の『源氏物語絵巻』をはじめ、白描物、扇面、屏風、貝合わ せなど、美しい絵が残っている。
しかし、江戸時代後期、文政から天保期にかけて柳亭種彦作・歌川国貞画の 合巻本『偐紫田舎源氏』が刊行されると、この作品をもとにした浮世絵が作ら れるようになる。
タイトル中の『江戸紫五十四帖』は、現在揃いでは存在しないようである が、歌舞伎化されたものをもとに、物語に沿って役者を前面に出して描かれ た、三代豊国の役者絵である。
The Barbara Curtis Adachi Bunraku Collection at C.V. Starr East Asian Library of Columbia University
The Barbara Curtis Adachi Collection, given to Columbia's C. V. Starr East Asian Library in 1991, is one of the most extensive collections in the United States, if not the world, visually documenting this rich performance tradition. The collection represents four decades of close contact and respectful collaboration between Ms. Adachi and the Japanese National Bunraku Troupe, the leading performance group of Bunraku in the world, and documents the significant revival of Bunraku's popularity in the second half of the twentieth century. This paper discusses the collection information, organization of the collection, and the finding aids of the Adachi Bunraku Collection.
"Fides no Qvio" (1611) from the Jesuit Mission Press and its Preservation in E.G. Stillman's Collection in Harvard University
The only extant copy in the world of Symbolo da Fee or Fides no Qvio (1611), published by the Jesuit Mission Press which was active in Nagasaki from 1590 to 1614, was re-discovered at Harvard University in 2009. Except for its cover and first page, which appeared once in an antiquarian catalogue of the Gottschalk bookseller in Berlin in 1907, it had disappeared without revealing its contents in spite of painstaking efforts by many academics, including Johannes Laures.
The book is now held by Houghton Library of the University under register no. Typ. 684.11.435. It was found while examining the card catalog of the private collection of Ernest Goodrich Stillman (1881-1949), a member of the Harvard class of 1908. In the last part of his life he was a benefactor and honorable curator of Japanese collections in Harvard University. The catalog consists of more than 5.500 entries in ten boxes classified by author and topic. The information about Symbolo da Fee is to be found under the entry “Jesuit Relations”.
This presentation firstly examines the history of the book‟s movements before its deposit in Houghton Library. Secondly it introduces the biography of Dr. Stillman and his close relationship with Japan at the beginning of the 20th century. Finally, it gives a brief overview of his collections scattered in various libraries, archives, and museums in the university, although the majority of them is still unknown because of the anonymity of his donation.
Towards Sharing Information about Japanese Art Works in Italy
This presentation surveys the Japanese artworks in the possession of cultural institutions in Italy. My on-going survey aims at gathering basic information on Japanese artworks, including the institution where the artworks are now located. Since the sixteenth century, Italy has accumulated these artworks, contributed by a variety of people, including traders, missionaries, tourists, diplomats, and sericultural merchants.
Researchers who reside outside Italy have long experienced difficulties in acquiring even the most basic information about the artworks which are rich in historical and cultural value. The lack of information is caused mainly by the difficulty in cataloguing unfamiliar, non-western artworks.
Based on the survey which I have been working on for the last few years, I would like to suggest a way how researchers, regardless of language and physical location, can share the information. For this purpose, I would like to propose a portal site where everyone will be able to find all the necessary information regarding the artworks by simply accessing the Internet.
This portal site is planned to be interactive, thus allowing researchers to share and exchange information regarding Japanese art collections in Italy. University students of Japanese art and culture in Italy could cooperate in the development of the site, thereby having the opportunity to actually study and describe Japanese artworks.
Digital Image Index to Woodblock Prints
In July 2009 the Resource Center for the History of Entrepreneurship launched the Jitsugyôshi Nishiki-e Ebiki website (a searchable image index of woodblock prints showing the modernization and industrialization of society in the Meiji era, http://ebiki.jp.)
Woodblock prints were a popular visual media in Japan before the advent of photography. The Center focuses on woodblock prints from the Meiji era which illustrate the transition from old to modern industry. We chose woodblock prints that depict a wooden frame house construction and, numbering and indexing various elements in the prints, we created an exciting new type of digital resource.
In my presentation I will introduce Shibusawa Keizô‟s idea of a “Searchable image index (Ebiki)” based on his “Thinking About the Creation of an Ebiki.” Then I will discuss the contents of the Jitsugyôshi Nishiki-e Ebiki by showcasing the “Ebiki Database” and “Ebiki Gallery.”
International Research Center for Japanese Studies (Nichibunken): Edoardo Chiossone and Visual Resources Related to Him
キヨッソーネは 1875 年(明治 8 年)に明治政府(大蔵省紙幣寮)の招きで来 日した。日本の近代化を支援するお雇い外国人として紙幣印刷の技術を日本に 教えるためである。彫刻師としてまた銅版画家として誠実でかつ才能にあふれ た彼により、日本の紙幣、切手、証券証書など近代的で本格的な印刷技術が日 本に根付いた。
キヨッソーネの貢献は紙幣や切手などの彫刻・印刷術の伝授はもちろん、視 覚的な分野における西洋の先進的技術や考え方を日本人に植え付けたことが特 筆される。また、西郷隆盛や明治天皇(御真影)などを制作して肖像版画を日 本に定着させたこと、その他明治の高官の肖像画を多数制作して、日本人の明 治時代観や近代日本のイメージに大きな影響を与えたことを指摘しておきた い。
さらに今回の発表で注目したいのは、彼が1879年5月から9月まで日本 の文化遺産や文化財を調査・記録するために日本各地を巡った5ヶ月間の旅行 である。このとき撮影された写真は日本の景勝地や文化財についてのきわめて 早い映像記録であり、日本研究の資料としても貴重であるとともに興味深いテ ーマを提供してくれるものと考える。
Discovering STM Treasures in the "Captured Document" Sets at the Library of Congress
STEEN Tomoko Y.
Right after the Japanese surrender to the Allied Forces on August 15th, 1945, the US government assigned several US intelligence officers to visit specific parts of Japan to recover “important” documents. Long before the Japanese surrender, the US military had a capacity to decode much of Japanese war communications and knew about various scientific and medical research projects conducted as part of Japan‟s war effort. These documents were brought to the US during the occupation period, first to the Library of Congress. Four bilingual experts were appointed by the government to organize these documents - bounded documents were to be kept at the Library of Congress, and loose documents to go to the National Archives. A large number of documents were simply put in large canvas sacks, and there are also many more sensitive documents first marked as “top secret” that were eventually brought to the Library of Congress through a different route. The presentation will introduce the processes and history of two sets of documents brought to the US during the occupation period.
"Second only to Chiossone's": The Kitaev Collection of Japanese Art
“My collection is second only to Chiossone‟s collection,” wrote in 1916 Sergey Kitaev (1864- 1927), a Russian naval officer, who built up his collection in the late 19th c. during his stay in Japan. Kitaev called Chiossone his friend who helped him to collect. Therefore it seems quite befitting to talk about the Kitaev collection in Genoa. The proposed paper is based on my research for the two-volume catalogue of prints from this collection (or rather a small part left of it). After the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, the Kitaev Collection was nationalized and never seriously studied until very recently. Possibly the bigger part of it was lost. This paper presents the story of its bygone glory and subsequent dispersal. The presentation will be illustrated with highlights (some of them never published before) from the collection and by images of the early 20th c. archival documents.
明治 5(1874)年に設置され、長い歴史を誇る法務図書館が所蔵する戦前・戦後 の貴重な資料が段ボール 42 箱に収められ未整理のまま長年にわたって保管さ れてきた。それらの資料が元法務図書館法務専門官の高山京子氏を中心として 約 10 年間にわたり精力的に行われてきた。その整理作業が 2009 年 3 月に終了 し、10 冊の目録として刊行され、さらに 3 冊の目録も刊行準備が進められて いる。これらの目録に収められているものは、日本の近世から近代の大転換、 さらには、第二次世界大戦後の日本を法律の側面から理解するうえで、非常に 貴重な資料であるといえる。10 冊に収められた 13 種の目録のうち『司法大臣 岩村道世関係文書目録』、『「徳川裁判事例」「徳川禁令考」編纂資料目録』 などの法律分野の目録に加え、『陸地測量部発行地図目録』を例にあげて、貴 重な資料の一端を紹介する。
A Short Introduction to “Kokushi Daijiten Web”
JapanKnowledge has launched “Kokushi Daijiten Web” on June 1st. Its contents constitute the best known and most reliable encyclopaedia of Japanese history. It contains 54,000 original headwords, while another 4,000 headwords have been added into the JapanKnowledge version of Kokushi Daijiten. In JapanKnowledge, headwords search and whole text search have been expanded with some new functions. The user will be impressed by the potential power of the Kokushi Daijiten expanded with other JapanKnowledge contents.
I would also like to introduce the future plans we have for adding new contents. Some unique and interesting contents are going to be added soon.
国立国会図書館では、電子図書館サービスの提供と資料の長期保存を目的とし て、資料のデジタル化を推進している。2009 年 6 月に著作権法が改正され、資 料の滅失、損傷、汚損を防ぐことを目的とする場合は、著作権者の許諾なく国 立国会図書館の所蔵資料をデジタル化することが可能となり、2010 年 1 月から 施行されている。他方、2009 年 5 月に成立した 2009 年度補正予算で、当館所 蔵資料のデジタル化経費として約 127 億円が計上された。この補正予算によ り、2009 年度から 2010 年度にかけて図書、雑誌、児童書、古典籍資料、官 報、博士論文など約 90 万冊の大規模な資料のデジタル化に取り組んでいる。
また、当館では、2002 年からウェブサイト管理者からの許諾に基づき、日本 国内で発信されるインターネット情報の収集・保存・提供を行う事業(Web Archiving Project :WARP)を行ってきた。2009 年 7 月国立国会図書館法が改正さ れ、国等の公的機関が発信するインターネット情報を許諾なく収集し、保存す ることが可能となり、2010 年 4 月から収集、保存を開始している。
The National Diet Library (NDL) has digitized its collections in order to provide the “digital library service” and to preserve its materials for a long time. The Copyright Law of Japan was amended in June 2009 to enable the NDL to digitize materials in order to avoid the originals being lost, damaged or defaced. The amendment came into force in January 2010. Coinciding with this legal change, a supplementary budget for FY2009, which was approved in May 2009, was allocated to cover the digitization costs of about 12.7 billion yen (approximately 140 million US dollars). With this budget, from FY2009 to 2010, the NDL is conducting a large-scale digitization of around 900,000 items, including books, magazines, children‟s books, rare and old materials, dissertations and official gazettes published in Japan.
For web archiving, the NDL has been carrying on the Web Archiving Project (WARP) since 2002 on permission-base. In July 2009, the National Diet Library Law was amended to enable the NDL to collect Internet resources offered by public sector institutions including national government agencies and local governments without permission. It came into effect in April 2010, after which date the NDL started to collect official institutions‟ websites in Japan.
"China" in Onna daigaku Women's Texts in Tokugawa Japan
Onna daigaku was the generic name of a series of texts for women in Tokugawa Japan. They served multiple functions including moral education, polishing writing skills, as well as serving as a dictionary and encyclopaedia for young women. I focus on illustrations cited from Chinese classics. What kind of scenes inspired young Japanese women?
The North American Coordinating Council on Japanese Library Resources (NCC): Report and Update
YOKOTA-CARTER Keiko, ROCHA Fabiano Takashi
We will share the topics discussed in the Third Decade Conference of the North American Coordinating Council on Japanese Library Resources (NCC) related to international cooperation with our European colleagues. Fabiano Takashi Rocha shares his successful logistic to conduct workshop on Image Use Protocol at the University of Toronto, Canada. He will be giving an update on the Image Use Protocol, an initiative that provides guidelines for requesting permission for the use of Japanese images in scholarly publications. Fabiano will introduce the materials that were produced as templates for librarians who are planning to conduct a workshop in their home institutions. He will also share his experience with planning and conducting a tailored workshop to the Canadian audience.
YONEZAWA Makoto, TAKAHASHI Nanako
NACSIS-CAT is a system for constructing union catalogue databases designed to provide at-a- glance information on scholarly collections held at university libraries across Japan. Many European libraries with Japanese holdings also participate in our system. We shall give a workshop to show how to make bibliographic data on NACSIS -CAT. As the name suggests, this is a clinic / Q & A workshop, rather than a general / basic training session, but cataloguers at any level are welcome to attend. We ask participants for their cooperation to prepare specific examples of the type of problems which they encounter in their libraries and to send, in advance, photocopies/digital images of actual items they are having trouble cataloguing. We shall work through them one by one and show how to create their records. Please send them directly to the address below by the end of July at the latest.
Problems of Translating Christian Terminology into Japanese
The goal of my presentation is to deal with Christian terminology from the viewpoint of a translator, especially concerning the Bible and its translation into Japanese, because the difficulty in translating Christian terminology and church-related terms from a European into a non-European language becomes particularly apparent here.
To give a specific example, how should the name of God be translated? From a historical perspective, for the first missionaries in Japan in the middle of the 16th century, the questions of which Japanese word to use for "God" and how much the Christian message could draw on the native beliefs were essential. The same questions were of great interest for the first Japanese translation of the Bible in the 19th century. To some extent, the process of translating the Bible into Japanese was already being influenced by Chinese translations. The word "kami" was used for "God" even though the meaning is quite different. But the Jesuit missionaries did not translate the word "God" at all and used the Romanization "Deus" to avoid misunderstanding.
I will first examine church related documents from this time. These were mainly translated by Jesuit missionaries. These will include catechisms (Dochirina Kirisitan, 1591; 1600) and legends of saints (Santos no Gosagyo, 1591). I then plan to examine modern Japanese Bible translations. These translations from the 19th century will be the second object of research. The main contributors here were S.R. Brown and J.C. Hepburn.