Tokiko Y. Bazzell
University of Hawaii at Manoa. Japan Studies Librarian & Head of the Asia Collection Department

Bringing hidden resources to light : the Stanley Kaizawa Kabuki Collection at the University of Hawaii at Manoa Library

During the Allied Forces Occupation of Japan after WWII, published materials such as books, magazines, and newspapers were censored from 1945 through 1949 by the Civil Censorship Detachment (CCD) under the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers (SCAP). In addition to publications, Japan’s traditional performing arts such as Noh, Joruri, and Kabuki plays were also censored, with an estimated 100,000 Kabuki scripts censored during the period.

At the end of the Occupation, the surviving censored Kabuki scripts including officers’ notations and records were scattered between the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in the U.S., the Shochiku Ootani Library, and Waseda’s Tsubouchi Memorial Museum (Enpaku). However, one censorship officer, Stanley Y. Kaizawa, a second generation Japanese American from Hawaii, secretly brought back over 100 censored English translations of the manuscripts to his home in Hawaii. More than fifty years later, these materials were donated to the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) Library.

In collaboration with the Kyoto Seika University in Japan, the Kaizawa Kabuki Collection Digitization Project (the Project) began in 2016 to enhance the usability of these digitized records by creating full-texts and search capability. Interviews with Stanley Kaizawa and related photos during the Occupation will also be digitized and made accessible.

Scholars in Japan who are collaborating of the Project hope to present on research perspectives (their proposal will be sent separately), while my presentation will focus on the practical aspects of bringing the Project to fruition, which includes finding funding sources and handling the technical aspects of the Project.


戦後占領期1945 年から1949 年にかけ占領軍総司令部下に置かれた民間検閲支隊による出版書籍・雑誌・新聞の検閲が実施された。出版物に加え、能・浄瑠璃・歌舞伎などの伝統演劇も検閲の対象となり、この間10 万以上の歌舞伎台本が検閲されたと推測されている。

占領終了期には検閲記録が残る歌舞伎検閲台本は米国公文書館、松竹大谷図書館、早稲田大学坪内記念演劇博物館にそれぞれ保存されていった。しかし、ハワイ出身の日系二世の検閲官であったスタンリー・カイザワは、密かに100 余りの英訳された歌舞伎検閲台本をハワイの自宅に持ち帰っていた。その後50 年以上の月日を経て、この資料はハワイ大学マノア校に寄付されることになる。

京都精華大学との協働プロジェクトとして2016 年に始まった「カイザワ歌舞伎コレクションデジタル化プロジェクト」は、デジタル化した検閲台本をテキスト化し、フルテキスト検索を可能にすることで資料としての利便性を推進し、加えて、スタンレー・カイザワとのインタビュー記録をデジタル化しトランスクリプトを付して広く共有し、さらには占領期にカイザワが作成した写真集をも共有することを目指している。